一.上帝是至高的主和全世界的王,祂在自己之下设立国家官员治理人民,是为了祂自己的荣耀和公众的利益,因此赋与他们佩剑的权柄,用以保护并鼓励行善的,处罚作恶的(罗13:1-4;彼前2:13-14)。

God, the supreme Lord and king of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under Him over the people, for His own glory and the public good; and to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defense and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evildoers.

二.基督徒若被委任接受并执行国家官员的公职,乃是合乎圣经的(箴8:15-16;罗13:1,2,4);他们在按照各个国家健全的法律执行公职时,应当特别维持虔敬、公正与和平(诗2:10-12;提前2:2;诗82:3-4;撒下23:3;彼前2:13),同样,为此目的,如今在新约之下,他们可以合乎律法地从事公义和必须的战争(路3:14;罗13:4;太8:9-10;徒10:1-2;启17:14,16)。

It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate when called thereunto; in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth, so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and necessary occasions.

三.国家官员不可僭取讲道与施行圣礼(代下26:18),或执掌天国钥匙之权(太16:19;18:17;林前12:28-29;弗4:11-12;林前4:1-2;罗10:15;来5:4),亦不可丝毫干涉关乎信仰之事(约18:36;玛2:7;徒5:29)。然而国家官员如同保育之父一般,有责任保护我们同一个主的教会,不偏待任何一个宗派,以使众教会人员均可享受那完全的、无限制的、无条件的宗教自由,去履行他们神圣本份的各方面,不受威胁或暴力侵扰(赛49:23)。并且,耶稣基督在祂的教会中既已规定了通常的治理和惩治,它们在按照自己的信念而自愿作某一宗派的教友权利的行使,任何国家的法律都不可加以干涉或阻碍(诗105:15;徒18:14-15)。国家官员当保护所有人的身体和名誉,使人不致因宗教不同或不信宗教,而遭受别人侮辱、暴力、诅骂和伤害;又当制定法规,使宗教和教会的集会得以举行,不被骚扰(撒下23:3;提前2:1-2;罗13:4)。

Civil magistrates may not assume to themselves the administration of the Word and sacraments; or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven; or, in the least, interfere in matters of faith. Yet, as nursing fathers, it is the duty of civil magistrates to protect the church of our common Lord, without giving the preference to any denomination of Christians above the rest, in such a manner that all ecclesiastical persons whatever shall enjoy the full, free, and unquestioned liberty of discharging every part of their sacred functions, without violence or danger. And, as Jesus Christ hath appointed a regular government and discipline in his church, no law of any commonwealth should interfere with, let, or hinder, the due exercise thereof, among the voluntary members of any denomination of Christians, according to their own profession and belief. It is the duty of civil magistrates to protect the person and good name of all their people, in such an effectual manner as that no person be suffered, either upon pretense of religion or of infidelity, to offer any indignity, violence, abuse, or injury to any other person whatsoever: and to take order, that all religious and ecclesiastical assemblies be held without molestation or disturbance.

四.人民当为国家官员祈祷(提前2:1-2),尊敬他们的人格(彼前2:17),给他们纳税(罗13:6-7 ),服从他们合乎律法的命令,为良心的缘故服从他们的权威(罗13:5;多3:1)。不信宗教或宗教差异,并不废止国家官员正当和合乎圣经的权威,也不解除人民对他们的顺服 (彼前2:13,14,16);这种顺服,教会人员也是不能免的(罗13:1;王上2:35;徒25:9-11;彼后2:1,10,11;犹8-11)。教皇在他们领土之内对他们或他们的任何人民都没有任何统治权或管辖权,尤其不能因着把他们判为异端者,或假托任何名义而剥夺他们的土地或生命(帖后2:4;启13:15-17)。

It is the duty of the people to pray for magistrates, to honor their persons, to pay them tribute and other dues, to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience’s sake. Infidelity, or difference in religion, doth not make void the magistrate’s just and legal authority, nor free the people from their obedience to him: from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted; much less hath the pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and least of all to deprive them of their dominions or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any other pretense whatsoever.