一.上帝赐给亚当一个律法,作为行为之约,用来约束他与他的后裔亲自、完全、严格、持续地顺服;上帝应许他遵守得生,警告他违背受死;并赐给他守此律法的能力(创1:26同2:17;罗2:14-15;10:5;5:12,19;加3:10,12;传7:29;伯28:28)。

God gave to Adam a law, as a covenant of works, by which He bound him and all his posterity to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual obedience; promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death upon the breach of it; and endued him with power and ability to keep it.

二.在他堕落之后,此律法仍是公义的完美标准,并由上帝在西乃山颁布于十条诫命之中,刻在两块石版上(雅1:25;2:8,10-12;罗13:8-9;申5:32;10:4;出34:1);前面四诫包含我们对上帝当尽的本分,其余六诫包含我们对人当尽的本分(太22:37-40;出20:3-18)。

This law, after his fall, continued to be a perfect rule of righteousness; and, as such, was delivered by God upon Mount Sinai in ten commandments, and written in two tables; the first four commandments containing our duty toward God, and the other six our duty to man.

三.除这通称为道德律的十诫以外,上帝按祂自己的美意,把礼仪律赐给以色列人这未成年的教会,其中有若干预表性的律例,一部分是为崇拜之用,以预表基督和祂的美德、作为、苦难和惠益(来9,10:1;加4:1-3;西2:17);一部分揭示关乎道德责任的各种教训(林前5:7;林后6:17;犹23)。这些礼仪律在新约时代都被废止了(西2:14,16,17;但9:27;弗2:15,16)。

Besides this law, commonly called moral, God was pleased to give to the people of Israel, as a church under age, ceremonial laws, containing several typical ordinances, partly of worship, prefiguring Christ, His graces, actions, sufferings, and benefits; and partly holding forth divers instructions of moral duties. All which ceremonial laws are now abrogated under the New Testament.

四.上帝把以色列人视为一个国家,也赐给他们各种司法性的律例。这些司法律已与那百姓的国家一同期满终止了,除了为着一般衡平法所要求的以外,现在不再有任何的约束力(出21,22:1-29;创49:10同彼前2:13-14;太5:17,38,39;林前9:8-10)。

To them also, as a body politic, He gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the state of that people, not obliging any other, now, further than the general equity thereof may require.

五.道德律永远对所有人都有约束力,不管是已经称义的人,还是其他人,都当顺服(罗13:8-10;弗6:2;约壹2:3,4,7-8);这不仅仅是因其所含的内容,也是因其颁布者造物主上帝的权威(雅2:10,11)。这种责任,基督在福音中,不仅丝毫没有废掉,反而更加强了(太 5:17-19;雅2:8;罗3:31)。

The moral law doth forever bind all, as well justified persons as others, to the obedience thereof; and that not only in regard of the matter contained in it, but also in respect of the authority of God the Creator who gave it. Neither doth Christ in the gospel any way dissolve, but much strengthen, this obligation.

六.虽然真信徒不在作为行为之约的律法之下,藉此称义或被定罪(罗6:14;加2:16;3:13;4:4-5;徒13:39;罗8:1),可是这律法对于他们以及别人都大有用处,因它作为人生的标准,既将上帝的旨意和人生的责任指示他们,便指导并约束他们照着去行(罗7:12,22,25;诗119:4-6;林前7:19;加5:14,16,18-23);并且他们藉此既发现他们的本性、心思和生活的罪污(罗7:7;3:20),就因自省而对自己的罪更加认识、差愧、恨恶(雅1:23-25;罗7:9,14,24),并更清楚地知道他们对基督及其完美顺服的需要(加3:24;罗7:24,25;8:3,4)。同样,律法对重生者也有用处,因它禁止犯罪,抑制他们的败坏(雅2:11;诗119:101,104,128);而它的警戒表明他们虽然免于律法所警戒的咒诅,但他们当知,自己因所犯的罪也应受什么惩罚,为罪今生要受什么痛苦(拉9:13,14;诗89:30-34)。照样,律法的应许向他们表明上帝是嘉许顺服的,虽然律法不被看作行为之约,可用来使人配得祝福(加2:16;路17:10),但他们若遵守律法就可以期望得到什么样的祝福(利26:1-14;林后6:16;弗6:2,3;诗37:11同太5:5;诗19:11);所以人因律法鼓励行善、胁止作恶而扬善弃恶,并不表明他是在律法之下,而不在恩典之下(罗6:12 ,14;彼前3:8-12;诗34:12-16;来12:28-29)。

Although true believers be not under the law as a covenant of works, to be thereby justified or condemned; yet is it of great use to them, as well as to others; in that, as a rule of life, informing them of the will of God and their duty, it directs and binds them to walk accordingly; discovering also the sinful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and lives; so as, examining themselves thereby, they may come to further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred against sin; together with a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ, and the perfection of His obedience. It is likewise of use to the regenerate, to restrain their corruptions, in that it forbids sin, and the threatenings of it serve to show what even their sins deserve, and what afflictions in this life they may expect for them, although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law. The promises of it, in like manner, show them God’s approbation of obedience, and what blessings they may expect upon the performance thereof; although not as due to them by the law as a covenant of works: so as a man’s doing good, and refraining from evil, because the law encourageth to the one, and deterreth from the other, is no evidence of his being under the law, and not under grace.

七.以上所述律法的用处与福音的恩典不仅不相矛盾,反而是密切契合(加3:21);基督的灵降服人的意志,并使人的意志能够自由自在、甘心乐意地去行上帝要人去行的事,也就是上帝在律法中所显明的旨意(结36:27;来8:10;耶31:33)。

Neither are the forementioned uses of the law contrary to the grace of the gospel, but do sweetly comply with it: the Spirit of Christ subduing and enabling the will of man to do that freely and cheerfully, which the will of God, revealed in the law, requireth to be done.